Making certain an satisfactory provide and equitable distribution of health employees is of substantial worth to obtaining helpful common well being protection and sustainable enhancement goals. The equitable geographical distribution of medical practitioners is a recurring international health and fitness workforce challenge and has been aspect of the health and fitness plan dialogue for numerous many years. Studies have demonstrated that bigger densities of medical practitioners are affiliated with greater wellbeing results this kind of as elevated existence expectancies and decreased standardized dying rates [1,2,3,4,5]. The focus of doctors in one particular location at the expense of other locations, this sort of as the superior concentrations of medical professionals in huge metropolitan areas and urban places, has led to inequitable obtain to health treatment in lots of nations around the world . In addition, socio-cultural improvements and the increasing incidence of serious circumstances in growing older populations are rising demand from customers for wellness care much speedier than the provide of physicians , which proficiently widens these inequitable workforce distribution gaps.
Thailand is an upper middle-income country that carried out a universal wellness coverage scheme in 2002, and by 2017, 99.84% of the Thai populace had some form of wellbeing coverage . Available well being amenities delivering companies to folks can be categorized in accordance to a a few-tiered service program composed of major, secondary and tertiary treatment amenities. Principal wellness treatment facilities deliver products and services that integrate frequent sickness procedure, health and fitness advertising, illness avoidance, rehabilitation and neighborhood health interventions. This form of health facility includes overall health facilities, which are generally underneath the management of the Ministry of General public Wellness (MoPH). Secondary well being treatment amenities present healing care adhering to referral from primary treatment facilities. These kinds of wellness services incorporate the MoPH administered district hospitals, other general public hospitals, and private hospitals. Tertiary health treatment services give specialised treatment, normally immediately after referral from most important or secondary wellness care amenities. These services consist of MoPH administered normal and regional hospitals, university hospitals, and other community hospitals and private hospitals . Lots of well being facilities are concentrated in the funds Bangkok, which is house to 5,487,876 people. Of the community hospitals in Bangkok in 2017, 5 were health-related university hospitals, 18 have been professional hospitals, 26 have been common hospitals and 137 have been clinical facilities. In addition, 108 of the nation’s 308 non-public hospitals (35%) have been positioned in Bangkok in 2017 . At the regional level, which handles the 76 provinces excluding Bangkok, there ended up 6 health care faculty hospitals, 49 specialist hospitals and 28 regional hospitals in 2017. At the provincial amount, overall health services comprised general or regional hospitals, district hospitals and well being facilities. In 2017, there were 88 standard hospitals covering all provinces, 780 district hospitals masking 88.8% of districts, and 9,777 health and fitness centers, performing as most important health and fitness care facilities, covering all sub-districts . Pretty much all health and fitness facilities at provincial level are beneath the responsibility of the MoPH, but private hospitals have been also discovered in large regional centers.
The variety of health professionals, such as common practitioners and all expert health professionals, was 41,746 in 2013 and the ratio of doctors per 1,000 population was .65 . The yearly manufacturing of common practitioners from all healthcare educational institutions in Thailand has elevated from 1676 in 2013 to 3218 in 2017 , but the density of medical professionals in Thailand stays effectively underneath the typical medical doctor density in South East Asian countries (1.1/1000 inhabitants) and Europe (2.9/1000 population) , indicating a shortages of physicians. In addition, health professionals in Thailand are not equitably dispersed among rural and city parts or among provinces with very low financial status and wealthier provinces , hindering the helpful provision of well being treatment products and services by the Thai overall health technique. The Thai govt has executed a multi-pronged intervention system above decades to attract and retain medical doctors in underserved locations. To maximize the variety of doctors serving rural locations, a distinctive observe for university student recruitment and training has been executed that enrolls learners with rural backgrounds, provides education at medical schools and MoPH hospitals near to their hometowns, and obliges them to return to their dwelling provinces on graduation. These interventions help maximize the likelihood of professional medical graduates picking out to do the job and stay in rural locations [10,11,12]. This particular monitor at present accounts for 47% of the overall range of new graduates (general medical doctors) utilized to perform in MoPH facilities every year [10, 11]. In supplemental, monetary and non-economic incentives have been applied to catch the attention of and retain medical practitioners to MoPH amenities, particulars of which can be observed in the critiques of Wibulpolprasert el al  and Pagaiya and Noree . On the other hand, as the over-all wellness wants of the populace keep on to increase because of to the rising proportion of aged people and the growing incidence of continual health conditions, much more overall health employees are needed. The present-day circumstance combines an over-all scarcity of medical professionals with amplified demand, which has more aggravated the maldistribution of medical doctors.
In a approach to address medical professional maldistribution, the MoPH commenced allocating newly graduated general practitioners according to overall health services utilization in 2017 . By this approach, the health care provider prerequisites of every single healthcare facility in 2017 were being decided centered on service utilization in that healthcare facility in 2016. The services were being outpatient visits, inpatient days, operation expert services, delivery companies, and accident and crisis solutions. In addition, at just about every medical center, a ratio of one doctor for five health and fitness facilities was used to estimate the selection of doctors demanded to provide major health and fitness treatment, and the ratio of doctor per health centers ended up based mostly on the assistance utilization at overall health middle amenities . The total number of physicians required for all MoPH facilities in 2017–2021 was forecast to be 20,053–24,668 doctors. To realize this goal, recently graduated standard practitioners had been allotted to just about every province all through 2017–2021 in accordance to services utilization and quantity of wellbeing facilities in the area. It is essential that health care provider distribution is equitable, so that folks receive available, certified and efficient wellness services. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of physician allocation by the MoPH in relation to fairness distribution.